Also known as Ultra High Definition (UHD), is a cutting-edge display technology that delivers exceptional picture quality. It boasts a resolution of 3,840 x 2,160 pixels, offering four times the detail of traditional Full HD (1080p) screens. With its high pixel density, 4K provides sharper images, finer textures, and more vibrant colors, making it a popular choice for immersive viewing experiences.


Advanced Audio Coding: AAC is a digital audio compression format renowned for its superior sound quality and efficiency. It's widely used for compressing audio files while maintaining excellent fidelity, making it a popular choice for various media applications, including music streaming, video production, podcasting and mobile device.


AC-3, also known as Dolby Digital, is a digital audio compression technology that is commonly used in various audio and video applications. AC-3 stands for "Audio Codec 3." It was developed by Dolby Laboratories and is designed to efficiently encode and transmit multi-channel audio, primarily for use in home theater systems, DVD and Blu-ray discs, digital television broadcasts, and streaming media.

ABR - adaptive bitrate streaming

ABR or Adaptive Bitrate Streaming is a dynamic video streaming technology designed to ensure uninterrupted, buffer-free viewing experiences. ABR adjusts the quality of video in real-time based on a viewer's internet connection, device capabilities and network conditions. This intelligent approach optimizes video playback, delivering smooth and high-quality streaming, making it ideal for online video platforms and content providers aiming to enhance user satisfaction.

Aspect ratio

Aspect ratio is a fundamental concept in film and video production that defines the proportional relationship between a video's width and height. Common aspect ratios include 16:9 (widescreen) and 4:3 (standard). Understanding aspect ratios is crucial for content creators, as it impacts the visual composition and how videos appear on various screens.


Crucial factor in digital audio and video quality. It refers to the amount of data transmitted or processed per unit of time, typically measured in bits per second (bps). Higher bitrates generally result in better audio and video fidelity but require more data bandwidth.


Content Delivery Network (CDN) is a dynamic web infrastructure that enhances website performance and loading speed. CDNs distribute website content across a network of strategically located servers, allowing users to access data from the nearest server location. This results in reduced latency, faster page loading times, and improved overall user experiences.


Technology for securing digital content in a consistent and adaptable manner. It enables content providers to protect their media assets with a single encryption standard that can be used across various platforms and devices. This approach simplifies content distribution while ensuring robust security measures.


Chunks are discrete blocks of data used in various digital processes, including data streaming and processing. These manageable data segments allow for efficient data handling, storage, and transmission. In streaming, for example, data is divided into chunks to facilitate smoother delivery, reducing buffering and enhancing the user experience.


Critical component in data streaming technology, designed to enhance the efficiency and reliability of content delivery. It's essentially a list or index of data chunks, allowing for organized and streamlined transmission of information.


CMAF or Common Media Application Format is a transformative technology in the world of streaming. It's a unified format that harmonizes the delivery of audio and video content across various platforms and devices. CMAF improves streaming efficiency, reduces latency, and enhances the viewer experience. Content providers and streaming platforms leverage CMAF to simplify their workflows while delivering high-quality content seamlessly.


Codec or "encoder-decoder" is a fundamental technology in digital media. Codecs are used to compress and decompress audio and video files, balancing between file size and quality. Popular types of codecs include H.264, H.265 (HEVC), and AAC for video and audio compression.


Container is a versatile package that houses multiple types of data, including audio, video, subtitles and metadata, within a single file. Common container formats include MP4, MKV and AVI. Containers are essential for organizing and delivering multimedia content, ensuring compatibility across various devices and players.


DRM or Digital Rights Management is a technology that protects digital content from unauthorized access - copying and distribution. It ensures that content, such as music, video and e-books is used in compliance with copyright and licensing agreements.


DVR or Digital Video Recorder is a revolutionary device that has transformed how we watch television. It allows users to record and store TV programs, movies and other video content for later viewing. DVRs provide the flexibility to pause, rewind and fast-forward through recordings, effectively giving viewers on-demand access to their favorite shows.

Embedded player

A dynamic tool used to seamlessly integrate multimedia content, such as videos or audio, directly into websites or applications. It enables website visitors to view or listen to multimedia content without leaving the webpage.


Vital process in the digital world, involving the transformation of data into a specific format for efficient storage, transmission or compression. It's widely used in various applications, from video streaming to text messaging. Encoding ensures data can be accurately interpreted by different devices and systems.


FFmpeg is a versatile and widely-used multimedia framework that excels at handling audio and video processing tasks. It empowers content creators, developers and video enthusiasts to manipulate, convert and edit multimedia files with ease. Whether it's encoding, decoding or transcoding media, FFmpeg provides a robust solution.


Adobe Flash, once a popular web technology developed by Adobe, enabled the creation of interactive multimedia content on websites. It allowed animations, games and video playback to be seamlessly integrated into web pages. However, due to security and compatibility concerns, Flash has been largely phased out in favor of more modern web technologies like HTML5.

Frame rate

Frame rate refers to the number of individual frames or images displayed per second in a video. High-definition devices are typically capable of recording video at either 30 or 60 frames per second (fps), ensuring smoother motion and higher video quality. Conversely, a lower frame rate often results in reduced video quality. It's a crucial factor in determining the smoothness and realism of motion in videos. Understanding frame rates is essential for content creators and viewers, as it directly impacts the visual quality and cinematic experience.

Frame size

Frame size, often expressed as width x height (e.g., 1920x1080 pixels), refers to the dimensions of an individual frame or image within a video sequence. It is a crucial technical parameter that directly affects the visual clarity and overall display quality of videos. Larger frame sizes, such as 4K (3840x2160 pixels), offer exceptional detail and sharpness, while smaller sizes, like 720p (1280x720 pixels), may sacrifice some detail for improved streaming performance.


Geo-blocking is a digital practice used to restrict or grant access to online content based on a user's geographical location. It's a strategy employed by content providers and websites to comply with regional licensing agreements, copyright laws and content distribution preferences. Geo-blocking can limit or enable access to specific websites, streaming service or digital content, depending on the user's location.


Group of Pictures is an important element in video compression technology. It defines the structure of frames within a video stream, consisting of keyframes (I-frames) and interframes (P-frames and B-frames). The arrangement of GOP frames greatly impacts video compression efficiency and visual quality.


H.263 is a significant video compression standard that has played a crucial role in enabling efficient video streaming and communication. Developed by the ITU-T, it's renowned for its ability to compress video data while maintaining reasonable visual quality. H.263 has been a cornerstone in the evolution of video conferencing, online streaming and multimedia messaging.


H.264, also known as AVC (Advanced Video Coding) is a groundbreaking video compression standard that has transformed the world of digital media. It excels at compressing video files while retaining exceptional visual quality. H.264 has significantly improved bandwidth efficiency, enabling smoother playback and enhanced video experiences across various devices and platforms.


H.265, also known as HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Coding) represents a cutting-edge video compression standard designed to deliver remarkable video quality even at ultra HD resolutions. It builds upon the success of its predecessor, H.264, by significantly reducing file sizes without compromising visual fidelity. H.265 has become a cornerstone in the world of 4K and 8K video streaming, offering viewers stunningly crisp images while conserving bandwidth.


HD stands for High Definition and is a standard for visual content that offers improved quality compared to traditional formats. It typically refers to resolutions like 720p (1280x720 pixels) and 1080p (1920x1080 pixels), providing sharper, more detailed images and videos.


HDS, or HTTP Dynamic Streaming, is a technology designed to enhance the efficiency of video delivery over the internet. It dynamically adapts to users' network conditions, ensuring smooth and uninterrupted playback.


HLS, which stands for HTTP Live Streaming, is a transformative technology that has reshaped how we access video content online. Developed by Apple, HLS enables adaptive streaming, which dynamically adjusts video quality based on a viewer's internet connection. This ensures smoother playback and a superior viewing experience.

HTTP streaming

HTTP streaming is a cutting-edge technology that enables the efficient and uninterrupted delivery of video content over the internet. By using standard HTTP protocols, it optimizes video transmission, ensuring a smooth viewing experience for users.


I-frame or Intra-frame is an element in video compression that serves as a reference point for maintaining clarity and precision. It's a standalone frame that contains complete image information, unlike P-frames and B-frames, which rely on previous frames.


IPTV or Internet Protocol Television is a revolutionary technology that delivers television content over the internet instead of traditional cable or satellite methods. It enables viewers to access a wide range of TV channels, shows and on-demand content through internet-connected devices. IPTV has gained popularity for its flexibility, offering personalized viewing experiences and content access anytime, anywhere.


Keyframes are important markers in animation and video editing that define specific moments in a sequence. They serve as anchor points for intricate movements, transitions and visual effects. Keyframes allow content creators to precisely control the evolution of animations and video edits.


Latency, in the context of digital communication, refers to the time delay between the initiation of an action and the corresponding response. It plays a crucial role in online experiences, affecting everything from video conferencing to online gaming. Low latency ensures quick, real-time interactions, while high latency can lead to delays and interruptions.

Live streaming

Live streaming is a dynamic digital practice that enables real-time broadcasting of video and audio content over the internet. It allows content creators to connect with audiences instantly, delivering live events, performances and interactive experiences. Live streaming has gained widespread popularity for its ability to engage viewers, fostering direct communication and community building.

Load balancing

Load balancing is a critical technique used in digital infrastructure to distribute network traffic or computing workloads across multiple servers or resources. It ensures that no single server becomes overwhelmed, thereby optimizing performance, enhancing responsiveness and increasing system reliability. Load balancing is a fundamental practice for websites, applications and services, especially in high-traffic or mission-critical environments.


Manifest plays a fundamental role in media streaming and content delivery by serving as a guiding document that outlines how multimedia files are structured and presented. This essential document provides crucial details, including bitrates, resolutions and the order of playback for streaming services.


Metadata encompasses descriptive information that adds context and structure to digital assets and data, including technical specifications like file format, resolution and encoding. Metadata serves as the linchpin for efficient data organization and retrieval. In digital media, it assumes a pivotal role in content indexing, search engine optimization and user engagement.

Microsoft Smooth Streaming

Microsoft Smooth Streaming is an adaptive streaming technology that excels in delivering high-quality video and audio content over the internet. It relies on the use of adaptive bitrate streaming and dynamically adjusts the quality of content in real-time based on the viewer's bandwidth and device capabilities. Utilizing industry-standard codecs such as H.264 and H.265, Microsoft Smooth Streaming ensures seamless transitions between different quality levels, resulting in a superior viewing experience.


MPEG, which stands for Moving Picture Experts Group, is a renowned consortium of experts responsible for developing standardized codecs and compression algorithms for digital media. These standards, including MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and H.264 (AVC), have played a transformative role in the world of multimedia. They enable efficient video and audio compression, ensuring high-quality content while conserving bandwidth. MPEG standards are integral to various applications, from DVD and Blu-ray discs to streaming services.


MPEG-DASH, or Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP, represents a cutting-edge technology in the world of online video streaming. It's a standardized approach developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) for delivering adaptive streaming content over HTTP protocols. MPEG-DASH dynamically adjusts video quality based on the viewer's network conditions.


MPEG-TS, or MPEG Transport Stream, is a versatile data packaging format widely used in multimedia applications. It's designed to efficiently transport audio, video, and metadata over various transmission mediums, including cable, satellite and digital broadcasting. MPEG-TS excels at error resilience and supports multiple codecs like H.264 and AAC.

MPEG-TS live streams can be received by Quickstream Node and converted to different formats and containers.


Multicasting is an advanced data distribution technique used in computer networking to efficiently transmit data to multiple recipients simultaneously. Unlike unicast (one-to-one) and broadcast (one-to-all) communication, multicasting allows for one-to-many data transmission, optimizing network resources and bandwidth usage. It is particularly valuable for applications like video conferencing, online gaming, and content distribution networks, where data needs to be delivered to multiple recipients efficiently.


NDI, or Network Device Interface, is a powerful technology that revolutionizes video production by enabling the seamless sharing of high-quality video, audio, and metadata over IP networks. Developed by NewTek, NDI simplifies complex video workflows, allowing multiple devices and software applications to communicate and exchange media in real-time.


OTT, which stands for Over-The-Top, is a revolutionary content delivery method that leverages the internet to transmit video, audio and other media directly to viewers, bypassing traditional cable or satellite systems. OTT services, such as Netflix and Hulu, have gained immense popularity, offering on-demand access to a vast array of content across various devices. This digital delivery approach employs adaptive streaming technologies like HLS and MPEG-DASH, ensuring optimal quality and seamless playback.

Passthrough streaming

Passthrough streaming is an advanced data transfer method used in multimedia applications to efficiently relay data from a source to a destination without intermediate processing. It's particularly valuable in scenarios where data integrity and minimal latency are critical, such as broadcasting and live events. In passthrough streaming, data is transmitted in its original format, preserving its integrity and ensuring minimal processing overhead.


Playlist is a crucial element for organizing and sequencing media content. Playlists specify the order and quality levels of media segments, enabling adaptive streaming and smooth transitions between different bitrates, ensuring optimal playback. Whether it's HDS dynamically adjusting video quality based on network conditions, HLS structuring content for various devices or SRT ensuring reliable and secure transport, playlists play an integral role in delivering seamless and efficient media content across diverse streaming protocols.


A protocol is a fundamental set of rules and conventions that govern how data is transmitted and received in digital communication. It acts as the backbone of efficient data exchange, ensuring that devices and systems can communicate seamlessly.

Push publishing

Push publishing is an efficient content distribution method that empowers content providers to deliver information, updates or media to audiences without requiring active user requests. In push publishing, content is 'pushed' from the source to recipients, ensuring timely and automatic delivery.


Re-streaming is a strategic practice that involves the rebroadcasting or redistribution of existing live content to reach broader audiences. This technique is often employed in live events, webinars, and online broadcasts to extend the reach of valuable content. Re-streaming enables content to be simultaneously broadcasted on multiple platforms or channels, optimizing viewer engagement and accessibility.


Rendition refers to the practice of providing multiple versions of the same content, such as videos or streams, with varying qualities and formats to accommodate diverse viewer preferences and device capabilities.


Resolution is a fundamental aspect of visual content quality, determining the level of clarity, detail and sharpness in images, videos and displays. It is typically measured in pixels and denotes the number of horizontal and vertical pixels that compose an image or video frame. Higher resolutions, such as Full HD (1920x1080) or 4K (3840x2160), offer exceptional detail and visual fidelity, while lower resolutions may sacrifice some detail for improved performance.


RTMP, or Real-Time Messaging Protocol, is a communication protocol designed for real-time transmission of multimedia data, including audio, video and interactive content, over the internet. Developed by Adobe, RTMP has been a cornerstone in the world of live streaming and interactive applications, facilitating low-latency communication between servers and clients. It's often used in live streaming platforms, enabling seamless video and audio transmission with minimal delay. RTMP supports adaptive streaming and is compatible with various codecs, making it a versatile choice for delivering high-quality media content.


RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol) and RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) form a dynamic duo in the realm of multimedia streaming, enabling real-time transmission of audio and video content over networks. RTSP serves as a control protocol, facilitating the initiation and control of media streaming sessions, while RTP focuses on the actual delivery of multimedia data packets. Together, they orchestrate seamless and synchronized multimedia streaming experiences, making them essential for video conferencing, live broadcasts and interactive applications.


RTT, or Round-Trip Time, is a metric in computer networking that quantifies the time it takes for a data packet to travel from a source to a destination and back again. It serves as an indicator of network responsiveness and latency, impacting various online activities, from web browsing to online gaming and video streaming. A lower RTT signifies a more responsive network, while a higher RTT can lead to delays and slower data transfer.


Segment refers to a small, discrete part of a video file that is typically a few seconds in duration. Video streaming protocols like HLS and MPEG-DASH divide video content into segments, each encoded at different bitrates and resolutions.


Simulcast is a strategic broadcasting technique that involves simultaneously transmitting the same content across multiple platforms or channels. It's a valuable practice employed in live events, sports broadcasts and media distribution to broaden the reach of content and engage diverse audiences. Simulcasting ensures that viewers can access content through their preferred channels, devices or languages, maximizing accessibility and engagement.


SMIL, which stands for Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language, is a powerful XML-based markup language used to orchestrate synchronized multimedia presentations on the web. Developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), SMIL enables content creators to integrate various media elements, such as audio, video and graphics, into cohesive and synchronized presentations.


SRT, or Secure Reliable Transport, is a versatile and open-source video streaming protocol engineered to ensure secure and dependable transmission of media content over unpredictable networks. Developed by Haivision, SRT prioritizes low latency and packet loss recovery, making it a preferred choice for live broadcasting, remote collaboration, and cloud-based video delivery. SRT employs encryption and error correction mechanisms to safeguard content integrity, making it suitable for secure and sensitive transmissions. This protocol supports adaptive streaming and is codec-agnostic, offering seamless integration into various streaming workflows.


Streaming is a revolutionary technology that enables the real-time delivery of digital media content, such as video and audio, over the internet. It allows users to access and consume media without the need for downloading the entire file, ensuring instant playback and uninterrupted viewing experiences. Streaming services employ adaptive streaming techniques, adjusting the quality of content based on the viewer's internet connection, device, and preferences. This dynamic approach ensures optimal viewing quality and minimizes buffering. Streaming has transformed how we enjoy entertainment, from on-demand movies and music to live broadcasts and interactive experiences.


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) is one of the earliest networking protocols used by most fundamental internet applications such as the World Wide Web (HTTP), email (SMTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and more. Unlike UDP, TCP is a connection-based protocol. It's best suited for applications where accurate delivery is more important than timeliness.


Transcoding is a process in digital media where content is converted from one format or codec to another, enhancing its accessibility and compatibility across various devices and platforms. It ensures that media files can be played seamlessly on a wide range of devices, regardless of their unique specifications. Transcoding often involves adjustments in resolution, bitrate and encoding formats, optimizing the content for efficient delivery and playback.


Transmuxing is a process in the world of streaming that involves converting media streams from one streaming protocol to another while preserving content integrity. It allows content providers to reach a broader audience by adapting their streams to various devices and platforms. Transmuxing often occurs between protocols like RTMP, HLS, and MPEG-DASH, enabling seamless playback across different players and browsers.


Transrating is a process in the realm of video encoding and streaming that involves adjusting the bitrate or compression of video content to optimize its quality and compatibility with various devices and network conditions. This technique ensures that viewers receive the best possible video quality based on their internet connection and device capabilities. Transrating often accompanies adaptive streaming, allowing the content to dynamically adapt to changing conditions.

Trick play

Trick play is a valuable feature in digital media playback that enables users to navigate through audio and video content quickly and precisely. It provides tools such as fast forward, rewind, and frame-by-frame control, enhancing the viewer's ability to explore and locate specific moments in media files. Trickplay is particularly useful for reviewing content, finding highlights, or simply skipping ahead or backward efficiently.


UDP, or User Datagram Protocol, is a fundamental communication protocol in computer networking that prioritizes speed and efficiency in data transmission. Unlike TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP operates without establishing a connection and does not guarantee data delivery or order. Instead, it focuses on rapid data transfer, making it ideal for applications where low latency is crucial, such as real-time audio and video streaming, online gaming and VoIP. Multicast and MPEG-TS streams can be broadcast and re-streamed using Quickstream Node.

Unicast streaming

Unicast streaming is a personalized content delivery method that enables the transmission of multimedia content from a server to an individual viewer or device. Unlike broadcast or multicast streaming, which serve content to multiple recipients simultaneously, unicast focuses on delivering content exclusively to the intended recipient.

Unicast is usually used in Over-the-Top (OTT) streaming services and it works especially well for VOD video. Netflix, HBO, and other streaming services of this nature are the best examples of this form of streaming.

Unicast streaming provides the advantage of allowing endpoints to receive video dependent on the device being served and the available bandwidth. You could, for instance, get a 4K stream for your large TV, an HD feed for your smartphone, or even a low-resolution feed for an outdated device—or for anyone with limited internet.

Video-on-demand streaming

Video-on-demand streaming (VOD) is a revolutionary digital service that grants viewers the power to access and watch video content whenever they desire, bypassing traditional broadcasting schedules. With VOD, a vast library of movies, TV shows, and other multimedia is just a click away, available on various devices. It leverages adaptive streaming technologies to ensure smooth playback, adapting to viewers' internet connections and device capabilities.


VP8 is a widely-used video compression codec renowned for its capacity to deliver high-quality video while maintaining efficient data compression. Developed by Google, VP8 is part of the WebM project, offering a versatile and royalty-free solution for video encoding and streaming. It employs advanced compression techniques, making it suitable for various applications, including online video streaming, video conferencing and multimedia communication.


VP9 is an advanced video compression codec developed by Google, designed to deliver exceptional video quality while optimizing bandwidth utilization. It is part of the WebM project and offers a compelling solution for video encoding and streaming. VP9 employs cutting-edge compression techniques, making it ideal for a wide range of applications, from online video streaming and video conferencing to 4K and 8K video content delivery.


WebSocket is a communication protocol for web applications, designed to facilitate real-time, bidirectional data exchange between a web browser and a server. Unlike traditional HTTP, which relies on request-response interactions, WebSocket establishes a persistent connection, enabling instant data transmission in both directions.